The brake system is actually composed of two systems—Hydraulics and stopping friction. What happens within these two different systems from the time you place your foot on the brake pedal and your car stopping.
When press the brake pedal, the master cylinder fluid creates hydraulic pressure which pushes the brake fluid to the and through the brake lines..
Brake Lines and Hoses
As the fluid passes through steel brake lines and high pressure rubber hoses which the pressurized brake fluid travels on towards the wheel cylinders & calipers.
Wheel Cylinders and Calipers
These are the hydraulic units that apply pressure to the friction materials or brake pads, making your car to stop.
Disc Brake Pads and Drum Brake Shoes
These brake pads or shoes also known as linings are composed of high temperature materials that allows the friction that stops your car.
Types of Brakes
Disc brakes have Disc Brake Rotor, that are attached to the axle and a Caliper, which holds the Disc Brake Pads. Hydraulic pressure from the Master Cylinder causes the Caliper to evenly apply pressure to the disc brake pads and clapping the Rotor. Which allows the friction between the pads and rotor, to slow down or stop.
Drum brakes consist of a Brake Drums attached to the rear axle and wheel, the Wheel Cylinder, Brake Shoes and Brake Return Springs. Hydraulic pressure from the Master Cylinder causes the Wheel Cylinder to press the Brake Shoes against the Brake Drum. This creates friction between the shoes and drum to slow or stop your car.
The Parking Brake uses Cables to mechanically apply the brakes (usually the rear brake.) This is used to prevent the car from rolling when not being driven.
Anti-Lock Brakes: A System Built For Safety
Most cars today have computer-controlled anti-lock braking systems (ABS). When sudden stops are made, the ABS prevents wheel lock-up or skidding. The system has a computer controlled wheel-speed sensors that monitor your wheel rotation, computer-controlled hydraulics that pulse the fluid movement causing the brakes to apply friction on and off rapidly.